“According to Latané and Darley, there are 5 characteristics of emergencies that affect bystanders
  1. Emergencies involve threat of harm or actual harm
  2. Emergencies are unusual and rare
  3. The type of action required in an emergency differs from situation to situation
  4. Emergencies cannot be predicted or expected
  5. Emergencies require immediate action
Due to these five characteristics, bystanders go through cognitive and behavioral processes:
  1. Notice that something is going on
  2. Interpret the situation as being an emergency
  3. Degree of Responsibility felt
  4. Form of Assistance
  5. Implement the action choice
Darley, J. M., & Latane, B. (1970). The unresponsive bystander: why doesn’t he help? New York, NY: Appleton Century Crofts.
3 harps and piano
Premiered by Louisa Parment, Katherine Waters, Carolina Marcelino and Robert Allan (conducted by Nigel Boddice) at the Royal Conservatoire of Scotland, 1st May 2014.
Glasgow, January 2014